Oliver Cromwell – Oliver Cromwell Biography

Oliver Cromwell He was born on April 25, 1599, in Hantingdon, England. The son of Elizabeth Stuard and Robert Cromwell, an English squire and the son of a knight, Cromwell began his academic studies at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, where he received an education based on Puritan principles. He then left Cambridge University and moved to London, where he attended law courses and married Elizabeth Bourchier.

In 1620 he was forced to leave London, and settle in Hantingdon to take care of the inheritance left by his father who had passed away. A fervent religious and very faithful to the Puritan doctrine, he was of the opinion that the Catholic world was organizing a conspiracy against the Puritan ideals and freedom.

Eight years later he was elected representative of the city of Hantingdon in the British Parliament, challenging the absolutist policy carried out by the English King Charles I, for ten years. What Cromwell It did not tolerate was that the Crown did not involve Parliament in the conduct of the administrative and religious policy of the country.

In 1640 the king, due to lack of funds, was forced to convene Parliament, since he had to have the consent of the country to impose new taxes. In this circumstance, he did not find a great consensus, as many MPs were opposed to new taxes, which would be a burden on the British population. CromwellThis time, he sided with them. The two parties did not agree, so the outbreak of a conflict between the factions of parliament and the monarchy was imminent.

Shortly before the start of the English Civil War, Cromwell became a cavalry general and also founded a well-organized cavalry department, called Ironside Cavalry. The organization of this Department, would be in the future, the point of reference for the organization of the new British army, the New Model Army.

A few years after 1640, hostilities broke out between the troops of the British monarchy and the New Model Army. The “royalists” could not accept the behavior of Cromwell, so they tried to arrest him in Parliament but, like other members of the institution, he managed to get to safety.

After an open battle, in 1644 British troops led by Cromwell they won a landslide victory against the royal troops at Marston Moor. Cromwell now he was in control of the situation in the country, becoming the most important member of the British Parliament. After the civil war, with great tenacity, he managed to eliminate from the British political scene the exponents of the conservative Presbyterian current.

In 1646 the English king was arrested and his power delegitimized. Together with the members of parliament, Cromwell He tried to reach an agreement with King Charles I. The latter, however, did not want to reach an agreement with the members of Parliament, because he believed that the country should be governed only by the monarchy, based on divine power. Two years later Carlos I managed to escape from prison. Soon he would be arrested again and, under the charge of high treason, he was executed in January 1649, after a parliamentary vote.

Soon Cromwell he left for Ireland and Scotland, with the aim of defeating the last royalists. After participating in the bloody battle of Drogheda and defeating the last royalists present in Scotland, he returned to England to reorganize the British political system.

There he founded the first Commonwealth in British history and in 1653 dissolved the Parliament of the English Republic. In fact, he transformed England into a true military dictatorship, enlisting the support of the British army that he had led during the civil war against supporters of the king.

He carried out a very astute foreign policy, marked by the war between his country and the Republic of the Seven United Provinces of the Netherlands, won by the English, under the command of Admiral Robert Blake in 1654, after many battles between the Baltic Sea. and the East Indies.

Very important was the alliance that England maintained in those years with France, which allowed her between 1650 and 1655 to win the battle against the Spanish; in this circumstance England gained control of Dunkirk, over the English Channel, and Jamaica, lost by the Spanish against the British fleet led by Sir William Penn.

Cromwell was invested with the title of Lord Protector English at Westminster Abbey. After obtaining this title, he decided that after him, his powers would not be passed on by inheritance. On the other hand, a new constitutional text was also issued in the country by which it could also assign titles of nobility.

His health condition worsened due to the reappearance of malaria, a disease contracted years before, which was worsened by his recurrent kidney stone problems. Oliver Cromwell He died on September 3, 1658 at the age of 59. After the restoration of the monarchy, his body was dug up and hanged.

After his death, his son Richard Cromwell He was appointed as his successor and was Lord Protector of England between September 1658 and May 1659. Unable to reconcile the various political, military and religious factions, he soon lost the support of the army, on which his power depended. He was forced to abdicate and after the restoration of the monarchy in 1660 he fled to Paris. He returned to England in 1680 and lived quietly under a false name until his death in 1712.