John Bardeen – Biography of John Bardeen

John bardeen, born May 23, 1908, in Madison, Wisconsin, was an American physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1956 and 1972. He shared the 1956 Award with William B. Shockley and Walter H. Brattain for their joint invention of the transistor. With Leon N. Cooper and John R. Schrieffer he was awarded the 1972 prize for the development of the theory of superconductivity.

Bardeen He obtained his bachelor’s and master’s degrees in electronic engineering from the University of Wisconsin (Madison) and obtained his doctorate in mathematical physics in 1936 from Princeton University. A staff member of the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, from 1938 to 1941, he served as a principal physicist at the US Naval Artillery Laboratory in Washington, DC, during World War II.

After the war, Bardeen He joined Bell Telephone Laboratories in Murray Hill, NJ, in 1945, where he, Brattain, and Shockley conducted research on the electron-conducting properties of semiconductors. On December 23, 1947, they unveiled the transistor, which ushered in the electronic revolution. The transistor replaced the larger and more bulky vacuum tube and provided the technology to miniaturize electronic switches and other components needed in computer construction.

In the early 1950s, Bardeen He resumed the research he had begun in the 1930s on superconductivity, and his Nobel Prize-winning research provided a theoretical explanation for the disappearance of electrical resistance in materials at temperatures close to absolute zero. The BCS theory of superconductivity (from the initials of Bardeen, Cooper, and Schrieffer) was first advanced in 1957 and became the basis for all subsequent theoretical work on superconductivity.

Bardeen He was also the author of a theory that explains certain properties of semiconductors. He served as a professor of electrical and physical engineering at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, from 1951 to 1975.